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class="spanimg1">作者:½{±æžœèµ„讯 </span> <span class="spanimg2">来源åQ?a href="#" title="未知" target="_blank">未知</a></span> <span class="spanimg3">2019-08-06 00:00</span> <span class="spanimg4"><a href="#cm">我要评论</a>(<i><a href="#SOHUCS" id="changyan_count_unit"></a> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://assets.changyan.sohu.com/upload/plugins/plugins.count.js"></script></i>)</span> </p> </div> <div> <div class="say"><p>「危机公兛_ª’体」舆论危æœÞZ¼šæŸå®³äº’联¾|‘企业经˜q‡å¤šòq´å‘展所建立èµäh¥çš„品牌åŞ象,同时舆论危机也可能误导或伤害òq?.....</p></div> </div> </div> <div class="article-content fontSizeSmall BSHARE_POP"> <div><p style="align:center;width:400px;"><img src="/uploads/allimg/190806/145T02S5-0.jpg"></p></div>「危机公兛_ª’体」舆论危æœÞZ¼šæŸå®³äº’联¾|‘企业经˜q‡å¤šòq´å‘展所建立èµäh¥çš„品牌åŞ象,同时舆论危机也可能误导或伤害òq¿å¤§çš„网民,从而媄响整个互联网行业的健康发展。本文以互联¾|‘企业舆论危机公兛_¤„理机制äؓ主要研究对象åQŒå½’¾U³äº’联网企业舆论危机的特征。提ç‚égº’联网企业舆论危机公关处理的原则,分析了舆论危机公关的四种主要处理方式åQšæ–°é—Õd‘­a€äººåˆ¶åº¦ã€ç”¨æˆ·å’Œæƒå¨æœºæž„的反馈制度、公兛_ŽæœŸçš„跟进制度和危机预警机åˆÓž¼Œä¸ÞZº’联网企业舆论危机公关机制的构建和操作提供参考。一、引­a€äº’联¾|‘进入中国仅仅十几年åQŒä½†æ˜¯å´å¸¦æ¥äº†å·¨å¤§çš„影响。截è‡?010òq´åº•åQŒæˆ‘国网民规模达4.57亿ähåQŒäº’联网普及率持¾l­ä¸Šå‡è‡³34.3%。在互联¾|‘的环境下,信息传播速度更快、信息覆盖面更广åQŒè¿™äº›éƒ½æœ‰åŠ©äºŽä¼ä¸šå¿«é€Ÿå¾ç«‹å“ç‰ŒåŞ象和创新商业模式。电子邮件、即旉™€šè®¯ä»¥åŠ¾|‘络购物½{‰ï¼Œäº’联¾|‘ç»™äºÞZ»¬å¸¦æ¥å¦‚此之多的变化,¼›ÖM¸å¼€æä¾›å„种互联¾|‘äñ”品和服务的互联网企业。互联网企业在整个网¾lœçŽ¯å¢ƒä¸­æ—¢æ˜¯ä¿¡æ¯çš„制造者,同时也是信息的规避者,在舆论危机公兛_¤„理方面,ç”׃ºŽäº’联¾|‘企业拥有企业和媒体的双重èín份,造成互联¾|‘企业既要接受媒体和用户的监督,同时又有媒体的话语权和传播的优势åQŒåœ¨å±æœºäº‹äšg发生æ—Óž¼Œå¾€å¾€é¢äÍ更加复杂的难题。如何摆脱危机的发生åQŒé˜²æ‚£äºŽæœªç„¶åQ›é¢å¯¹å·²¾lå‘生的舆论危机又该如何正确处理åQŒæœ€å¤§é™åº¦å‡ž®å±æœºå¯¹ä¼ä¸šå“ç‰Œå’Œç»è¥ç®¡ç†çš„损害åQ›èˆ†è®ºå±æœø™¿‡åŽï¼Œå¦‚何åŽÀLŠšæ…°è‡ªå·Þqš„用户和广大的¾|‘æ°‘åQŒå¦‚何将危机转化为机遇,巩固企业的可信度åQŒè¿™äº›éƒ½éœ€è¦å¾ç«‹ä¸€å¥—完善的舆论危机公关处理机制。胡癄¡²¾åœ¨ã€Šä¼ æ’­å­¦½Ž¡ç†ã€‹ä¸€ä¹¦ä¸­æå‡ºåQšå±æœºæ˜¯æŒ‡ç”±¾l„织外部环境变化或内部管理不善造成的可能破坏正常秩序、规范和目标åQŒè¦æ±‚组¾l‡åœ¨çŸ­æ—¶é—´å†…做出决策åQŒè°ƒåŠ¨å„¿Uèµ„源,加强沟通管理的一¿Uå¨èƒæ€§æƒ…势或状态。危机公å…ÏxŒ‡ä¼ä¸šä¸ºé¿å…æˆ–者减è½Õd±æœºæ‰€å¸¦æ¥çš„严重损宛_’Œå¨èƒåQŒä»Žè€Œæœ‰¾l„织、有计划地学习、制定和实施一¾pÕdˆ—½Ž¡ç†æŽªæ–½å’Œåº”对策略,包括危机的规éÑ€æŽ§åˆ¶ã€è§£å†³ä»¥åŠå±æœø™§£å†›_Žçš„复兴等不断学习和适应的动态过½E‹ã€‚李玉æ“v½{‰ï¼ˆ2010åQ‰æå‡ºåˆ©ç”¨å†³½{–支持系¾lŸï¼ˆDSSåQ‰æ¥è¾…助¾|‘络舆论危机应急管理,òq¶æå‡ºç³»¾lŸçš„概要设计与功能。王惛_ã^½{‰ï¼ˆ2005åQ‰æŒ‡å‡ºå±æœÞZ¼ æ’­è¿‡½E‹çš„舆论有三个方面的特点åQšå‰§çƒˆæ€§ã€å¤šå…ƒåŒ–和趋利性,提出四点舆论引导½{–ç•¥åQšä¸»åŠ¨åœ¨½W¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´åšå‡ºæ­£é¢å›žåº”åQŒä¸»åŠ¨å‘布周延性信息,ä¸ÕdŠ¨ä»‹å…¥“议程讄¡½®”åQŒä¸»åŠ¨å¯»æ±‚信源合作。杨¾Ÿ¤ç‘›åQ?009åQ‰æå‡ºåº”对网¾lœä¸­å‡æ–°é—…R€å‡ä¿¡æ¯ã€ä¸åˆ©æ¶ˆæ¯æˆ–负面新闻的危机公兛_ŽŸåˆ™ï¼šé€Ÿåº¦½W¬ä¸€ã€æƒå¨è¯å®žã€æ‰¿æ‹…责仅R€çœŸè¯šæ²Ÿé€šã€ç³»¾lŸè¿è¡Œã€‚张荣刚åQ?010åQ‰å¾ç«‹å…¬å…›_±æœºçš„生命周期模型åQŒæ€È»“了互联网时代对企业危机公关的影响åQšå¿«æ·åŒ–推动危机˜q›ç¨‹åŠ å¿«åQŒæƒ…¾lªåŒ–引发控制隑ֺ¦åŠ å¤§åQŒå¢žé‡åŒ–促ä‹É传播效能攑֤§åQŒæ·±åº¦åŒ–要求反映事实原貌。叶盛世½{‰ï¼ˆ2011åQ‰åˆ†æžäº†å¾®åšçš„传播特点,以惠æ™?ldquo;质量é—?rdquo;事äšgä¸ÞZ¸ªæ¡ˆï¼Œå¯?ldquo;惠普”遭遇微博舆论危机事äšg的è“v因进行分析,提出企业应对微博舆论危机的关键策略:建立¾|‘络舆情事前预警、事中干预、事后评估机åˆÓž¼Œå»ºç«‹ä¼ä¸šæ–°é—»å‘言人和¾|‘络新闻发言人制度以及官方微博,建立员工危机信息½{–略培训制度。本文在æ€È»“相关研究成果的基¼‹€ä¸Šï¼šå¯¹äº’联网企业舆论危机的特征加以分析,从新é—Õd‘­a€äººåˆ¶åº¦ã€ç”¨æˆ·å’Œæƒå¨æœºæž„的反馈制度、公兛_ŽæœŸçš„跟进制度、预警机制等斚w¢é˜è¿°äº’联¾|‘企业舆论危机公兛_¤„理的方式。二、互联网企业舆论危机的特征舆论危机指在某一时期或某一事äšg中,各类媒体å¯ÒŽŸäººã€æŸå•ä½ã€æŸæ”¿æ²»é›†å›¢æˆ–国家片面、偏‹È€æˆ–敌对的舆论占据ä¸Õd¯¼åœîC½åQŒåƈ使绝大多数受众的情çÈA、思维和行为等产生共鸣的一¿Uèˆ†è®ÞZ¼ æ’­çŽ°è±¡ï¼Œå¯ÆD‡´æ”¿åºœã€ç›¸å…³ç»„¾l‡æˆ–当事人处于危急关å¤ß_¼Œç”šè‡³å¯¹è™šæ‹Ÿæˆ–现实½C¾ä¼š¾pȝ»Ÿçš„基本ä­h倹{€è¡Œä¸ºå‡†åˆ™ã€ç¤¾ä¼šç§©åºç­‰æ–šw¢äº§ç”Ÿæ”¹å–„性或破坏性媄响的现象。互联网企业的äñ”品或服务都是以互联网应用为基¼‹€åQŒåŒ…括网¾lœæ–°é—»èµ„讯、搜索引擎、网¾lœè§†é¢‘、网¾lœç¤¾åŒºã€BBS论坛、电子商务、网¾lœæ¸¸æˆã€åœ¨¾U¿è¥é”€½{‰å¤š¿UåŞ式,˜q™äº›äº§å“æˆ–服务可以是免费使用、也可以是有偿ä‹É用,但这些äñ”品或服务的ä‹É用都是在互联¾|‘åã^åîC¸Šå®žçŽ°ã€‚互联网舆论危机产生的原因包括以下几¿Uï¼šè‡ªç„¶å› ç´ ã€ç§‘技局限性、不当竞争行为、内部管理失误、竞争对手攻å‡È­‰ã€‚互联网企业ç‰ÒŽ®Šçš„发展历½E‹ã€ç»è¥ç‰¹ç‚¹ä»¥åŠäº’联网行业所处的发展阶段åQŒå†³å®šäº†å®ƒä»¬é¢äÍ的舆论危æœÞZ¸Žä¼ ç»Ÿä¼ä¸šå¾€å¾€å…·å¤‡ä¸åŒä¹‹å¤„。(一åQ‰äº’联网企业的舆论危æœÞZº‹ä»¶æ›´å®ÒŽ˜“被公众发玎ͼŒä¼ æ’­é€Ÿåº¦æ›´å¿«é¦–å…ˆåQŒäº’联网企业面对的用户都能ä‹É用网¾lœï¼Œè´Ÿé¢èˆ†è®ºä¿¡æ¯ä¼šåœ¨äº’联¾|‘上通过各种途径快速传播。互联网企业为网民服务,¾|‘民对他们的要求更严根{€æ›´è‹›åˆ»åQŒè´Ÿé¢ä¿¡æ¯è¢«ä¼ æ’­çš„机会更大。其‹Æ¡ï¼Œäº’联¾|‘企业的竞争å¯ÒŽ‰‹éƒ½å…·å¤‡ç½‘¾lœåã^収ͼŒä¸€æ—¦ä¼ä¸šå‘生了舆论危机åQŒç«žäº‰å¯¹æ‰‹å’Œè¡Œä¸šå†…çš„¾|‘站都会竞相转蝲。对于竞争对手而言åQŒè¿™¿Uåšæ³•ä¸€æ–šw¢å¢žåŠ è‡ªå·±¾|‘站的流量,另一斚w¢å€Ÿæœºæ‰“击了对手。再‹Æ¡ï¼Œæ ÒŽ®ã€Šä¿¡æ¯ç½‘¾lœä¼ æ’­æƒä¿æŠ¤æ¡ä¾‹ã€‹è§„定,¾|‘络媒体对于¾|‘络信息的传播è{载具有一定的免责权,一旦出现危æœÞZº‹ä»Óž¼Œ¾|‘络òq›_°ä¹Ÿå¯ä»¥åœ¨ä¸é‡‡è®Ñ€ä¸¼‹®è®¤çš„前提下先行˜q›è¡Œè½¬è²æŠ¥é“åQŒè¿™¿Uæ–¹å¼æ— ç–‘加速了舆论危机的扩散速度。(二)互联¾|‘企业的舆瓷危机事äšg覆盖面更òq¿ä¼ ¾lŸä¼ä¸šå‘生危æœÞZº‹ä»Óž¼Œä¸€èˆ¬å…·æœ‰åŒºåŸŸæ€§æˆ–者行业性特点,大部分在相对较小的范围内传播åQŒä½†æ˜¯äº’联网企业的用户同时也是网民,分布在全国各地、跨­‘Šå„个行业,各类人群åQŒèˆ†è®ºå±æœÞZ¸€æ—¦äñ”生,面äÍ的都ž®†æ˜¯åœ¨å…¨å›½èŒƒå›´ç”šè‡›_…¨çƒèŒƒå›´å†…ä¼ æ’­åQŒè¦†ç›–范围更òq¿æ³›åQŒäñ”生的负面影响不可估量。(三)互联¾|‘企业的舆论危机事äšgå®ÒŽ˜“被放大传播,话题难控制互联网企业一般拥有各自的互联¾|‘äñ”品,如论坛、邮½Ž±ã€åšå®¢ã€è§†é¢‘、播客等åQŒå½“企业出现负面舆论的时候,用户可以通过企业的网¾lœäñ”品、竞争对手的¾|‘络产品或者其他网¾lœåã^台进行信息传播、发表观炏V€‚同时用户不仅是消息的阅读者,他们也会对别人发布的消息˜q›è¡Œè¯„论或者再传播åQŒæˆä¸ÞZ¿¡æ¯çš„传播者。互动性的¾|‘络òq›_°ä½¿ç”¨æˆäh‹¥æœ‰äº†æ›´å¤§çš„主动性,从而实çŽîCº†“多对å¤?rdquo;的传播。一旦危æœÞZº‹ä»¶è¢«òq¿æ³›ä¼ æ’­åQŒä¿¡æ¯å†…容可能被严重夸大åQŒè¯é¢˜å¾ˆéš‘֏—控制åQŒä¹Ÿè®©èˆ†è®ºå±æœºçš„处理面äÍ重重困难。(四)互联¾|‘企业的舆论危机事äšg对企业自íw«ä¼¤å®Ïx›´å¤§äº’联网企业大多发展历史较短åQŒå…¬å¸å®žåŠ›ä¹Ÿè¾ƒå¼±åQŒç®¡ç†ç»éªŒå’Œ˜qè¥èƒ½åŠ›éƒ½åœ¨æ‘¸çƒ¦ä¸­ï¼Œäººå‘˜ç´ è´¨ä¹Ÿæ˜¯è‰¯èŽ ä¸é½åQŒä¼ä¸šç”Ÿå‘½å‘¨æœŸæ¯”较短åQŒå±æœºå…¬å…³çš„¾léªŒä¸èƒö。互联网企业的上˜q°ç‰¹ç‚¹ï¼ŒåŠ ä¹‹å±æœºäº‹äšg的舆è®ÞZ¼ æ’­é€Ÿåº¦æ›´å¿«ã€è¦†ç›–äh¾Ÿ¤æ›´òqѝ€ä¼ æ’­æ•ˆæžœæ˜“被夸大,话题难以控制½{‰ï¼Œå¯ÆD‡´äº†èˆ†è®ºå±æœÞZº‹ä»¶å¯¹äº’联¾|‘企业的影响和伤å®Ïx›´å¤§ã€‚三、互联网企业舆论危机公关处理原则åQˆä¸€åQ‰åŠæ—¶åé¦ˆäº’联网企业舆论危机主要åŸÞZºŽ¾|‘络媒体传播åQŒè´Ÿé¢æ¶ˆæ¯ä¼ æ’­é€Ÿåº¦å¿«ã€è¦†ç›–面òq¿æ³›ã€‚有关企业的负面报道一¾läº’联网传播åQŒåœ¨çŸ­çŸ­å‡ åˆ†é’Ÿä¹‹å†…就可以完成几十个、甚至上百个¾|‘络媒体的è{载,˜q›è€Œæˆä¸ºç¤¾ä¼š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