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class="listltitle"> <h3>「危机公兛_Ÿ¹è®­ã€æ”¿åºœä¼ä¸šåª’体危机掌握三原则转机为安</h3> <p> <a class="tfontsize" href="javascript:;" >字号+</a> <span class="spanimg1">作者:½{±æžœèµ„讯 </span> <span class="spanimg2">来源åQ?a href="#" title="未知" target="_blank">未知</a></span> <span class="spanimg3">2019-08-09 00:00</span> <span class="spanimg4"><a href="#cm">我要评论</a>(<i><a href="#SOHUCS" id="changyan_count_unit"></a> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://assets.changyan.sohu.com/upload/plugins/plugins.count.js"></script></i>)</span> </p> </div> <div> <div class="say"><p>「危机公兛_Ÿ¹è®­ã€ç¬¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´åŽŸåˆ™ ½Hå‘事äšg发生后,在第一旉™—´å‘布信息åQŒå¯ä»¥æŠ¢å èˆ†è®ºå…ˆæœºï¼Œé¿å…è°£è¨€åQŒæŽŒæ¡èˆ†è®ÞZ¸»åŠ?.....</p></div> </div> </div> <div class="article-content fontSizeSmall BSHARE_POP"> <div><p style="align:center;width:400px;"><img src="/uploads/allimg/190809/1H91AI8-0.jpg"></p></div>「危机公兛_Ÿ¹è®­ã€ç¬¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´åŽŸåˆ™ ½Hå‘事äšg发生后,åœ?ldquo;½W¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´”发布信息åQŒå¯ä»¥æŠ¢å èˆ†è®ºå…ˆæœºï¼Œé¿å…è°£è¨€åQŒæŽŒæ¡èˆ†è®ÞZ¸»åŠ¨æƒã€‚否则,在舆è®ÞZ¸Šž®×ƒ¼šé™·å…¥è¢«åŠ¨ã€‚在危机发生后,公众的大脑对于事件一片空白,心中有许多疑问,如果得不到及时准¼‹®çš„信息åQŒå…¬ä¼—就只能˜q›è¡ŒçŒœæµ‹å’ŒæŽ¨æ–­æˆ–到处打听ž®é“消息åQŒåƈ且由于生命安全受到威胁,没有了安全感åQŒäh们往往会做出夸大性的猜测和推断,产生恐慌åQŒç”šè‡Œ™¿˜ä¼šå‡ºçŽîC¸ç†æ™ºçš„行为。因此,能否及时填补公众大脑的空白对避免慌äؕåQŒç¨³å®šæ°‘心非帔R‡è¦ã€‚什么是“½W¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´”?现在很难对其˜q›è¡Œå…·ä½“的规定。但æ€Èš„要求ž®±æ˜¯å‡ºçŽ°½Hå‘事äšg后,反应要迅速。迅速到­‘³ä»¥æœç»è°£è¨€çš„出现和传播。äؓ什么要åœ?ldquo;½W¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´”发布信息?˜q‡åŽ»çš?ldquo;后发制äh”的做法äؓ什么不再有æ•?首先åQŒçŽ°åœ¨é ž®é”æ¶ˆæ¯åQŒæž“后发制äh”几乎已经不可能。现在科学技术日新月异,信息传播的速度和广度空前提高,特别是现代通信、电视技术、卫星技术、网¾lœæŠ€æœ¯çš„˜qç”¨å’Œæ™®åŠï¼Œä½¿äh们获取信息的途径­‘Šæ¥­‘Šå¤šå…ƒåŒ–åQŒä¼ æ’­æ‰‹ŒDµä¹Ÿ­‘Šæ¥­‘Šå¿«æäh–¹ä¾Ñ€‚有些地方出现危机后åQŒå½“地政府还没有说话åQŒå´æœ‰äh通过博客对外发布消息åQŒå›¾æ–‡åƈ茂地介绍情况åQŒæˆä¸ºåª’体和公众了解灾情的重要信息源。其‹Æ¡ï¼Œå¦‚æžœž®å µæ–°é—»æ¥æºæˆ–保持沉默,å¯ÆD‡´æ”¿åºœæˆ–权威的声音在关键时åˆÈ¼ºå¤±æˆ–滞后åQŒå°±ä¼šç»™è°£è¨€çš„äñ”生和传播以巨大空é—ß_¼Œè®©è°£­a€è‚†æ„æƒ‘众。沉默有时还会è“v到发é…늚„作用。沉默下产生的大量谣­a€ä¼šå¼•å‘公众不满,促ä‹É¾Ÿ¤ä¼—情çÈA由æ‡L动è{化äؓ‹È€åŠ¨ï¼Œç”šè‡³æ„¤æ€’。贵州瓮å®?ldquo;6?28事äšg”ž®±æ˜¯ä¸€èµ·å¶ç„¶çš„中学生æh水事件由于信息不透明åQŒé€ æˆè°£è¨€æ¨ªè¡ŒåQŒå¯¼è‡´ç¾¤ä¼—情¾lªå¤±æŽ§ï¼Œå¼•å‘的大规模¾Ÿ¤ä½“性事件。再‹Æ¡ï¼Œèˆ†è®ºä¼ æ’­ä¸­æœ‰“先入ä¸ÞZ¸»”的规律。äh们在接受信息æ—Óž¼Œæ€ÀL˜¯ç›æ€¿¡½W¬ä¸€‹Æ¡å¬è¯´çš„情况åQŒè€Œå¯¹åŽæ¥çš„说法æ€ÀL˜¯å­˜æœ‰æ€€ç–‘ã€?ldquo;先入ä¸ÞZ¸»”的信息往往会左右äh们对事äšg的看法和判断。国外学者做˜q‡ä¸€™å¹å®žéªŒï¼Œå—ä¼—½W¬ä¸€æ—‰™—´æŽ¥å—的信息,要想得到有效清除åQŒè‡³ž®‘需要数倍于½W¬ä¸€ä¿¡æ¯çš„信息量。可见第一信息的重要性。如果反应缓慢、不及时åQŒåŽæžœä¹Ÿæ˜¯ä¸€æ ïLš„。因ä¸ÞZº‹æƒ…过åŽÖM¸€ŒD‰|—¶é—´åŽåQŒåª’体的注意力已¾lä»–¿U»ï¼Œ˜q™ä¸ªæ—¶å€™å†åšååº”,媒体已经不感兴趣。如果造成了媄响,再去解释åQŒé—®é¢˜å·²¾lè¿œ˜qœè¶…出当初的情况åQŒå¼•å‘了很多新的问题åQŒä¸ç€è¾šw™…的事情都会联¾p»è“v来。所以,国内有专家说åQŒå†å¥½çš„信息和口径,不管它如何天衣无¾~ã€å®Œ¾ŸŽæ— ¾~ºï¼Œå¦‚果失去了时效性,效果½{‰äºŽé›¶ã€‚æ—¢ç„?ldquo;ž®å µ”已经基本不可能,òq¶ä¸”ž®å µæ”¿ç­–的负面作用那么大åQŒæˆ‘们不如改变过åŽÈš„思维方式和工作方式,å?ldquo;å ?rdquo;ä¸?ldquo;ç–?rdquo;。这也是我国在处理突发事件的实践中得出的一个宝è´ëŠš„¾léªŒå’Œæ•™è®­ï¼Œå?ldquo;堵不如疏”。在危机½Ž¡ç†ä¸Šæœ‰ä¸€ä¸?ldquo;泄洪模式”。指在洪水泛滥的时候,如果一呛_›´å µï¼Œå¿…然会有军_ ¤ä¹‹å±åQŒä¸å¦‚疏通河道,在疏中加以引对{€‚在面对铺天盖地的报道和谣言æ—Óž¼ŒåŒæ ·æ˜¯ä¸€ä¸ªé“理,½Ž€å•åœ°ž®å µåªä¼šé€ æˆä¸å¯æ”¶æ‹¾çš„后果。现在,互联¾|‘和手机媒体的出现和普及åQŒä»Žæ—¶æ•ˆå’Œå†…容上向突发事件的新闻发布提出了更高的要求。要求突发事件的新闻发布更快、更及时。上‹¹·å¸‚政府前新é—Õd‘­a€äººç„¦æ‰¬æœ‰ä¸€å¥è¯è¯´å¾—很到位,在突发事件的新闻传播中,最可怕的不是记者抢发新闻,而是记者抢发的不是å‡ø™‡ªæ”¿åºœå‘布的新闻,谁第一旉™—´å‘布新闻åQŒè°ž®±æŽŒæ¡äº†èˆ†è®ºçš„主动权、事件处理的ä¸Õd¯¼æƒã€‚有äºø™¯´åQŒå±æœºå‘生后的第一旉™—´˜q›è¡Œæ–°é—»å‘布或发表声明往往有很大难度和很大风险。因为情况不很明朗,无法提供完整的信息,也容易说错话或容易提供错误的信息。在˜q™ç§æƒ…况下,怎么操作?有一个技巧叫“阶段式新é—Õd‘å¸?rdquo;åQŒå³åˆ†é˜¶ŒDµè¿ž¾l­æ–°é—Õd‘布。在事äšg发生之初åQŒæœ‰å¤šå°‘信息ž®±æä¾›å¤šž®‘信息,ž®‘不要紧åQŒå…³é”®åœ¨äºŽåŠæ—Óž¼Œæ˜Žäº†åQŒè®©è®°è€…有东西可报。如告知发生了何事,何时发生、在何地、涉及何人,伤亡情况åQŒæ”¿åºœçš„态度和措施等½{‰ï¼Œåšåˆ°˜q™äº›ž®±åŸºæœ¬èƒ½æŠŠæ¡èˆ†è®ºå¯¼å‘的主动权。在˜q™ä¹‹åŽï¼Œå†æ ¹æ®äº‹ä»¶çš„˜q›å±•æƒ…况åQŒä¸æ–­åœ°æ–°é—»å‘布。美国危机管理专家劳伦斯?å·´é¡¿è¯ß_¼Œå…¬ä¼—在每一‹Æ¡å±æœÞZ¸­éƒ½è¦é—®ä¸‰ä¸ªé—®é¢˜ï¼š“发生了什ä¹?”“事情是怎么发生çš?”“ä¸ÞZº†¼‹®ä¿¾cÖM¼¼äº‹äšgæ°æ€¸å‘生åQŒä½ ž®†é‡‡å–什么措æ–?”在第一‹Æ¡æ–°é—Õd‘布时如果能够回答˜q™ä¸‰ä¸ªé—®é¢˜ï¼Œž®±å¯ä»¥æˆä¸ºæŠšæ…°å…¬ä¼—恐慌心理的½W¬ä¸€æœé•‡å®šå‰‚。公开透明原则公开透明的本质和灵魂在于及时把握公众的信息需求,最大程度满­‘›_…¬ä¼—知情权åQŒè¾¾åˆ°è§£ç–‘释惑、消除误解和矛盾的效果。英国著名危机管理专家迈克尔?里杰斯特è¯ß_¼š“çŽîC»£¾l„织处在一个其‹zÕdŠ¨é€æ˜Žåº¦æ—¥ç›Šå¢žå¤§çš„时代里。若一个组¾l‡ä¸èƒ½å°±å…¶å‘生的危机与公众进行合适的沟通,不能告诉½C¾ä¼šå®ƒé¢å¯¹ç¾éš‘Ö±€é¢æ­£åœ¨é‡‡å–什么补救措施,不能很好地表现它å¯ÒŽ‰€å‘生事故的态度åQŒè¿™æ— ç–‘ž®†ä¼š¾l™ç»„¾l‡çš„信誉带来致命的损宻I¼Œç”šè‡³æœ‰å¯èƒ½å¯¼è‡´ç»„¾l‡çš„消亡ã€?rdquo;所以,危机发生后,是否做到公开透明åQŒèƒ½å¦æ»¡­‘›_…¬ä¼—知情权对化解危机非常关键。越公开透明åQŒå…¬ä¼—获得的信息­‘Šå¤šåQŒç¤¾ä¼šä¸Šçš„è°£­a€ž®Þp¶Šž®‘,公众å¯ÒŽœ‰å…³éƒ¨é—¨çš„ä¿¡ä“Q度就­‘Šé«˜ã€‚反之,则相反。美国心理学家奥ž®”æ‡Lç‰ÒŽå‡ø™¿‡ä¸€ä¸ªä¼ æ’­å­¦çš„著名公式:‹¹è¨€‹¹é€šé‡=问题的重要æ€?times;证据的暧昧性。另外,一旦舆论失控,出现谣言惑众的情况,只要改变ž®é”æ¶ˆæ¯ã€ä¿æŒæ²‰é»˜çš„鸵鸟做法åQŒæé«˜é€æ˜Žåº¦ï¼ŒåŠ å¤§ä¿¡æ¯é‡ï¼Œä»¥æ¸…æ™îC¿¡æ¯å…‹åˆ¶æ¨¡¾pŠä¿¡æ¯ï¼Œž®Þpƒ½åœ¨å¾ˆå¤§ç¨‹åº¦ä¸ŠæŽ§åˆ¶è°£è¨€åQŒæ”¹å–„被动的舆论局面。自2003òq´çš„“非典”事äšg以来åQŒæ— æ•°çš„正反¾léªŒä¹Ÿéƒ½è¡¨æ˜ŽåQŒçªå‘事件的处理是否™åºç•…与相关信息的公开透明½E‹åº¦å¯†åˆ‡ç›¸å…³â€•â€•å…¬å¼€é€æ˜Ž½E‹åº¦­‘Šé«˜åQŒå¤„理就­‘Šé¡ºç•…、公众情¾lªä¹Ÿž®Þp¶Š½E›_®šã€‚相反,则会增加处理的难度,或ä‹É危机深化。第三方原则危机发生后,争取权威的第三方出来ä¸ÞZ½ è¯´è¯æ˜¯å±æœºå…¬å…Œ™ƒ½å¦æˆåŠŸçš„一个非帔R‡è¦çš„因素。公众在危机中追求的是真实、公正,与危机没有直接联¾pȝš„“½W¬ä¸‰æ–?rdquo;人士说的话更å®ÒŽ˜“让äh觉得真实、公正。危机发生后åQŒå½“事机构自己及时出面说明情冉|˜¯éžå¸¸å¿…要的,但是仅仅自己出面往往是不够的。要æƒÏxœ‰è¯´æœåŠ›ï¼ŒèŽ·å¾—公众信ä“QåQŒæœ€åŽåŒ–解危机,常常˜q˜å¿…™åÕd€ŸåŠ©½W¬ä¸‰æ–¹çš„力量。从˜q‘年来国内外政府和企业一些危机公å…Ïx¡ˆä¾‹ä¸Šçœ‹ï¼Œæˆ‘们发现许多¾l„织危机公关之所以失败就是没有权威的½W¬ä¸‰æ–¹åŠæ—¶å‡ºé¢äؓ它说话,为它正名åQŒå¦‚巨能钙有毒危机。而有些组¾l‡çš„危机公关之所以成功就是因为有½W¬ä¸‰æ–¹åŠ›é‡å‘挥了重要作用åQŒå¦‚上æ“v冠生园成功化解大白兔奶糖甲醛危机。特别是在出çŽîC¿¡ä»Õd±æœºæ—¶åQŒç¬¬ä¸‰æ–¹çš„声éŸÏx›´åŠ é‡è¦ï¼Œå¯¹åŒ–解危æœø™“v臛_…³é‡è¦çš„作用。组¾l‡è‡ªå·Þqš„解释åQŒé¸£å†¤å«å±ˆï¼Œè¾©è§£å¾€å¾€æ²¡æœ‰ä½œç”¨ã€‚说得越多,­a€è¾žè¶Š‹È€çƒˆå¾€å¾€ä¸ä½†æ²¡æœ‰è¯´æœåŠ›ï¼Œòq¶ä¸”˜q˜ä¼šæœ‰è´Ÿé¢æ•ˆæžœã€‚从危机公关的角度,不同的组¾l‡åº”借重不同的第三方力量。对企业来说主要有两¿Uï¼šä¸€æ˜¯æƒå¨æœºæž„,如政府部门、质‹‚€éƒ¨é—¨ã€è¡Œä¸šåä¼šã€ä¸“业机构、消费者协会等åQ›äºŒæ˜¯æƒå¨äh士,如公关专家、行业专家等。另外,媒体åQŒæ¶ˆè´¹è€…等都是重要的第三方力量。对政府来说åQŒå°±æ˜¯è€ç™¾å§“,媒体特别是网民、专家学者,‹¹·å¤–华äh华äöLåQŒå¤–国政府政要、学者、主‹¹åª’体及专栏作家½{‰ç­‰ã€‚传播学开创者霍夫兰从大量的实证调查中发玎ͼŒ½W¬ä¸‰æ–¹ä¿¡æºçš„可信度越高,其说服效果越大,反之åQŒåˆ™­‘Šä½Žã€‚另外,½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